The Woodville Karst Plain
The Woodville Karst Plain, is east of the north-south line formed by Highway 319 through Crawfordville and Panacea. The land surface is made of sand generally not more than 20 feet thick. Underneath the sand is a layer of limestone. Like Swiss cheese and sponges, the limestone in Wakulla has lots of holes throughout, making it a very porous material. Water can easily permeate and flow through the underground limestone structure. Limestone is also soluble, meaning it will dissolve in water over time. This type of limestone topography is called karst.
The Apalachicola Coastal Lowlands
The Apalachicola Coastal Lowlands region is west of the approximate bisecting line formed by Highway 319. This region is also known as the "Apalachicola Flat Woods." The surface of the Apalachicola Coastal Lowlands is generally flat and sandy. Unlike the Karst Plan, a thick layer of sandy clay and peat lies between the sandy surface and the underlying layer of limestone. Surface water here does not sink readily into the clay and peat, thus the region has a high water table and much of the surface area is characteristically wet.
Driving or biking through the area, you will notice that pine trees make up a large part of the landscape in Wakulla County. Look closely and you will also see hardwood forests and beautiful hardwood hammocks. Hammocks are raised areas of very fertile land that support clusters of hardwood trees which give Wakulla a touch of autumn color in November; and a fairy-tale look in spring, as dogwood trees adorn the forests with beautiful white blossoms.
Wakulla is fortunate with winter temperatures mild enough for trees that favor southern climates, such as magnolia, live oak, Florida maple, sweetbay and cabbage palmetto. While also cold enough to support northern species such as white oak, black oak, elm, black walnut, white ash and flowering dogwood. Another edge for Wakulla-where coolness from the north meets the warmth of the south.
The pine and mixed hardwood forests have a direct connection to water quality and quantity in Wakulla. The upland forests serve as recharge areas for our natural underground water system, the Floridan Aquifer. The sandy soil allows rainwater to sink quickly beneath the earth into underground rivers and streams. The trees and other vegetation hold the sandy soil in place and also act as natural water filters by absorbing small amounts of pollutants as water drains underground.
Other natural resources waiting to be discovered are Wakulla's rivers, swamps, marshes and beaches.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 736 square miles (1,906 km²), of which, 607 square miles (1,571 km²) of it is land and 129 square miles (334 km²) of it (17.54%) is water.
Wakulla County is part of the Tallahassee Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Leon County, Florida - north
Liberty County, Florida - west
Franklin County, Florida - southwest
Jefferson County, Florida - east
National Protected Areas
Apalachicola National Forest (part)
St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge (part)